Cabergoline, Butea Superba, Boiled Alive

Vetted Syrian opposition beheaded 2 IS militants in Northern Aleppo, near Mare.

Index of articles

---

Vaginal Rejuvenation

Vaginal rejuvenation, or vaginoplasty, is a surgical procedure designed to tighten loose or stretched vaginal wall muscles and to narrow the vaginal opening. These delicate soft tissues can be permanently injured and stretched following childbirth, trauma, and/or aging. Such trauma to the vaginal wall muscles and introitus (i.e. vaginal opening) can leave a woman feeling “loose or floppy” and may interfere with sexual enjoyment or a sense of self-esteem. But thanks to new advances in plastic surgery and cosmetic surgery of the female genitalia, almost every woman can be returned to her teenage dimensions and memories.

Dr. Traci M. Temmen, is a board certified plastic surgeon with experience performing vaginal rejuvenation surgery. Her delicate bedside manner, gentle surgical technique, and understanding of a woman’s anatomy and concerns make her a top choice for women in the Tampa Bay area of Florida considering vaginal rejuvenation and vaginoplasty surgery.

Vaginal Rejuvenation Surgery

The goals of vaginal rejuvenation surgery are to improve a woman’s self-confidence and sexual fulfillment by tightening the inner vaginal walls and the vaginal opening. Tightening of the vagina is this manner can allow for a “fuller” feeling during sexual intimacy, less urinary incontinence, and a heightened sense of sexuality and self-esteem.

During a vaginal rejuvenation surgery, the sides, front, and back of the vaginal canal are repaired and tightened and excess vaginal soft tissues are removed. To narrow the vaginal opening, a small strip of mucosa, or superficial soft tissue, is excised and the resultant wound closed tighter and smaller than before surgery.

Who is a Candidate for Vaginal Rejuvenation Surgery?

The ideal candidate for a vaginoplasty or vaginal rejuvenation is a woman who is bothered by a stretched or toneless vaginal wall and/or vaginal opening. Patients undergoing vaginal rejuvenation should not be pregnant or feel pressured by their spouse or partner. Additionally, vaginoplasty patients should not plan on having additional children as childbirth can reverse the effects of vaginal rejuvenation, vaginoplasty, or labiaplasty.

Who is Not a Candidate?

Women with complex medical problems and/or current sexually transmitted diseases or urinary tract infections should not undergo a labiaplasty surgery. Prior to cosmetic surgery in Tampa of the labia or vaginal rejuvenation, all medical problems should be well controlled and any infections should be appropriately treated. Women who have recently had a child should also wait at least 9 to 12 months postpartum before considering vaginal rejuvenation. During this time, the stretched and fatigued vaginal wall muscles will naturally shrink and tighten to varying degrees.

Vaginal Rejuvenation Surgery Scar Location

The scar produced by vaginal rejuvenation surgery is placed lengthwise within the vaginal canal and is not seen on external visualization. Despite the hidden nature of the vaginal rejuvenation scar, Dr. Traci Temmen closes each vaginoplasty incision with meticulous attention to detail, form, and function.

Recovery

Dr. Traci Temmen performs vaginal rejuvenation, labiaplasty, and other cosmetic surgery of the female genitalia in an accredited, private surgical suite, custom-made for plastic surgeons, at the Plastic Surgery Center of Tampa. Dr. Temmen usually performs vaginal rejuvenation surgery under general anesthesia in approximately one hour. Following vaginal rejuvenation, female patients recover in the luxury of a private recovery suite with a recovery room nurse dedicated solely to her comfort.

Most vaginal rejuvenation patients are able to return to work in one to two days, drive when they are no longer taking narcotic pain medications, and return to sexual activity and exercise in two to three weeks.

Vaginal Rejuvenation Surgery Cost

Just like you would never choose your baby-sitter or pediatrician based on cost, price should not be the main consideration when choosing a cosmetic surgeon. Only plastic surgeons certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery with proper training and experience should be trusted with this delicate area of anatomy. Dr. Traci Temmen is one of only a few female, board certified plastic surgeons offering safe and effective vaginal rejuvenation surgery.

The cost of a vaginal rejuvenation varies by plastic surgeon and by region of the country. In the Tampa Bay area of Florida, the average price of vaginoplasty performed by a board certified plastic surgeon in a well-equipped and clean facility is approximately $4,000 to $5,000. This price includes surgeon fees, anesthesia fees, and facility fees. This cost will increase with complexity, additional surgeries, and increases in planned surgical time.

Dr. Temmen offers convenient payment options for vaginal rejuvenation, labiaplasty, and all other forms of cosmetic surgery of the female genitalia. They accept check, credit, card, and CareCredit, a credit card that offers special financing and low monthly payments for cosmetic surgery procedures.

Risks and Problems

Vaginal rejuvenation is a relatively new procedure to the field of plastic surgery, and thus there are no long-term studies evaluating the effectiveness, risks, benefits, or complications. However, like any surgery, there are known risks and problems associated with vaginal rejuvenation surgery. The most commonly encountered problems following a vaginal rejuvenation are inadequate “tightening,” delayed wound healing, or prolonged bleeding. Wound healing problems usually resolve on their own and do not require additional surgeries.

Additional complications following vaginal rejuvenation surgery include infection, scarring, and changes in sensation. While the risk of these complications with a vaginal rejuvenation are unknown, they can usually be treated as an outpatient or with minor office procedures. Probably the most feared result of a vaginal rejuvenation or labiaplasty surgery is scarring that causes painful sex or changes in sensation leading to painful sex or decreases in enjoyment of sexual intercourse. Because of the known risks and complications following vaginal rejuvenation surgery, only properly trained plastic surgeons operating in accredited facilities should perform these operations.

Plastic surgeons like Dr. Traci Temmen, certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery, are not only trained in vaginal rejuvenation surgery, but also in diagnosing and appropriately treating the complications and risks associated with cosmetic surgery of the female genitalia.

---


Men risk their lives in wars so women can enjoy societies where they can pursue feminist goals, such as punishing men for sexist language.

---

Richard Dawkins on vivisection: "But can they suffer?"

The great moral philosopher Jeremy Bentham, founder of utilitarianism, famously said,'The question is not, "Can they reason?" nor, "Can they talk?" but rather, "Can they suffer?" Most people get the point, but they treat human pain as especially worrying because they vaguely think it sort of obvious that a species' ability to suffer must be positively correlated with its intellectual capacity. Plants cannot think, and you'd have to be pretty eccentric to believe they can suffer. Plausibly the same might be true of earthworms. But what about cows?

What about dogs? I find it almost impossible to believe that René Descartes, not known as a monster, carried his philosophical belief that only humans have minds to such a confident extreme that he would blithely spreadeagle a live mammal on a board and dissect it. You'd think that, in spite of his philosophical reasoning, he might have given the animal the benefit of the doubt. But he stood in a long tradition of vivisectionists including Galen and Vesalius, and he was followed by William Harvey and many others (See from which this picture is taken).

How could they bear to do it: tie a struggling, screaming mammal down with ropes and dissect its living heart, for example? Presumably they believed what came to be articulated by Descartes: that non-human animals have no soul and feel no pain.

Most of us nowadays believe that dogs and other non-human mammals can feel pain, and no reputable scientist today would follow Descartes' and Harvey's horrific example and dissect a living mammal without anaesthetic. British law, among others, would severely punish them if they did (although invertebrates are not so well protected, not even large-brained octopuses). Nevertheless, most of us seem to assume, without question, that the capacity to feel pain is positively correlated with mental dexterity - with the ability to reason, think, reflect and so on. My purpose here is to question that assumption. I see no reason at all why there should be a positive correlation. Pain feels primal, like the ability to see colour or hear sounds. It feels like the sort of sensation you don't need intellect to experience. Feelings carry no weight in science but, at the very least, shouldn't we give the animals the benefit of the doubt?

Without going into the interesting literature on Animal Suffering (see, for instance, Marian Stamp Dawkins's excellent book of that title, and her forthcoming Rethinking Animals), I can see a Darwinian reason why there might even be be a negative correlation between intellect and susceptibility to pain. I approach this by asking what, in the Darwinian sense, pain is for. It is a warning not to repeat actions that tend to cause bodily harm. Don't stub your toe again, don't tease a snake or sit on a hornet, don't pick up embers however prettily they glow, be careful not to bite your tongue. Plants have no nervous system capable of learning not to repeat damaging actions, which is why we cut live lettuces without compunction.

It is an interesting question, incidentally, why pain has to be so damned painful. Why not equip the brain with the equivalent of a little red flag, painlessly raised to warn, "Don't do that again"? In The Greatest Show on Earth

I suggested that the brain might be torn between conflicting urges and tempted to 'rebel', perhaps hedonistically, against pursuing the best interests of the individual's genetic fitness, in which case it might need to be whipped agonizingly into line. I'll let that pass and return to my primary question for today: would you expect a positive or a negative correlation between mental ability and ability to feel pain? Most people unthinkingly assume a positive correlation, but why?

Isn't it plausible that a clever species such as our own might need less pain, precisely because we are capable of intelligently working out what is good for us, and what damaging events we should avoid? Isn't it plausible that an unintelligent species might need a massive wallop of pain, to drive home a lesson that we can learn with less powerful inducement?

At very least, I conclude that we have no general reason to think that non-human animals feel pain less acutely than we do, and we should in any case give them the benefit of the doubt. Practices such as branding cattle, castration without anaesthetic, and bullfighting should be treated as morally equivalent to doing the same thing to human beings.

---

Why people kiss

Business Insider

This post from Natalie Engelbrecht, psychotherapist, naturopathic doctor, and researcher, originally appeared on Quora as an answer to the question, "Why do we kiss?"

The scientific study of kissing is called “philematology” (philos in ancient Greek = earthly love). During a kiss, couples exchange 9 mg of water, 0.7 mg of protein, 0.18 mg of organic compounds, 0.71 mg of fats, and 0.45 mg of sodium chloride, along with 10 million to 1 billion bacteria according to one estimate

Kisses use as little as two muscles, burning only 2 to 3 calories, while passionate kissing involves up to 34 facial muscles along with 112 postural muscles and burns around 26 calories per minute.

The original theory was that primate mothers chewed their food for their babies. However, as evolution continued the kiss began to be used to pass on information regarding biological compatibility of a mate via pheromone chemical signals as well as promote social bonding and expressing love, with the ultimate goal of procreation.

With the kiss, partners are able to get close enough to each other to assess essential characteristics about each other, none of which are consciously processed. Although the vomeronasal organs—which are responsible for pheromone detection and brain function in animals—are thought to be vestigial and inactive in humans. Research indicates we do communicate with chemicals.

One study found that when women were asked to smell T-shirts of different men and choose their favourite, the choice was not made randomly but was based on the man whose major histo-compatibility complex (MHC)—a series of genes involved in the males immune system—was different from their own. The importance of this is that different MHCs mean less immune overlap which indicates more healthy offspring.

While men are not selective in terms of kissing, women are very choosy. This is because on an evolutionary level women were looking for a mate to raise their offspring with, and kissing could be an unconscious but accurate way for women to assess the immune compatibility of a mate, before she invests too much time and energy in him.

While males will have sex with women without kissing them beforehand as well as have sex with a woman who is not a good kisser, most women will never have sex without kissing first. Men tend to initiate French kissing and research suggests this is because saliva contains testosterone and this increases the sex drive of their mate. Furthermore, men are able to sense a woman’s level of estrogen which is a predictor of her fertility.

“There is evidence that saliva has testosterone in it,” said Rutgers University anthropologist Helen Fisher, “and testosterone increases sex drive. And there is evidence that men like sloppier kisses with more open mouth. That suggests they are unconsciously trying to transfer testosterone to stimulate sex drive in women.”

Hormone levels change after kissing. Specifically cortisol (stress) levels decreased in men and women after kissing, and the longer a couple is together the lower their stress hormones get. Interestingly oxytocin levels increase in men, however women’s levels decreased.

One theory is that women need more than a kiss to stimulate attachment and bonding. Kissing raises testosterone which increases sex drive, and also increases dopamine promoting romantic love, and oxytocin (men only) which promotes bonding.

Other benefits includes a modest increase in blood pressure and heart rate which helps our cardiac health, increased saliva produced during active kissing which helps to prevent tooth decay, and men who kiss their wives in the morning live 5 years longer on average and also make more money.

---

Index of articles